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Home  /  Dermatologist   /  Overview of BOTULINUM TOXINS

Overview of BOTULINUM TOXINS

Botulism (“BOT-choo-liz-um”) is an uncommon but dangerous sickness caused by a toxin that targets the body’s nerves, resulting in breathing difficulties, muscular paralysis, and even death. Clostridium botulinum, as well as Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium baratii bacteria, produce this toxin. The toxin can be produced by these bacteria in food, wounds, and baby intestines.

Botulinum toxin-producing bacteria can be found in many places naturally, although they seldom cause illness. Spores, which function as protective coverings, are produced by these microorganisms. Spores aid bacteria in surviving in the environment, especially in harsh environments. Even when consumed, the spores typically do not make people sick. However, under specific circumstances, these spores may develop and produce one of the mostly deadly poisons ever discovered. The following are the circumstances under which the spores can develop and produce toxin:

  • Low-oxygen or no oxygen (anaerobic) environment
  • Low acid
  • Low sugar
  • Low salt
  • A certain temperature range
  • A certain amount of water

For example- Foods that have been incorrectly canned, stored, or fermented, can create the ideal environment for spores to proliferate and produce botulinum toxin. People who consume these items may become extremely sick or perhaps die if they do not receive prompt medical attention.

Kinds of Botulism

Infant botulism- If the bacteria’s spores get into an infant’s intestines, it can cause botulism. As the spores multiply, they generate the poison that causes disease.

Wound botulism- If the bacteria’s spores get into a wound and produce a toxin, wound botulism can occur. Injecting drug users are more likely to get wound botulism.

Foodborne botulism-Eating foods that have been infected with botulinum toxin can cause foodborne botulism.

Latrogenic botulism occurs when too much botulinum toxin is injected for aesthetic or medicinal purposes, such as to treat wrinkles or migraine headaches.

Botulism can be deadly in any form and is a medical emergency. If you or someone you know has symptoms of botulism, call your doctor or go to the local emergency room very once.

Symptoms

Signs and symptoms might include:

  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Muscle weakness
  • Double vision
  • Drooping eyelids
  • Blurry vision
  • Slurred speech
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Difficulty moving the eyes

If you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of botulism, contact your doctor or go to the nearest emergency hospital as soon as possible.

The poison causes muscular paralysis, which causes all of the symptoms. If left untreated, the condition can spread and symptoms can deteriorate to the point where some muscles, such as those needed for breathing and those in the arms, legs, and trunk, are completely paralysed.

Treatment

Botulism is a poison that affects the body’s nerves, causing breathing difficulties, muscular paralysis, and even death.

Botulism is treated with an antitoxin, which stops the toxin from causing more damage. Antitoxin does not repair the toxin’s previous harm. Depending on the severity of your symptoms, you may need to stay in the hospital for weeks or even months before being able to return home.

You may experience breathing difficulties if your illness is severe. If the poison paralyses the muscles involved in breathing, you may experience respiratory (breathing) failure. If this occurs, your doctor may place you on a breathing machine (ventilator) until you are able to breathe normally again. The toxin-induced paralysis generally recovers slowly. The medical and nursing treatment you get in the hospital is designed to assist you in regaining your health.

People with wound botulism may require surgery to remove the bacteria’s source, as well as medications.

Survival and Complications

Because to advances in antitoxin and contemporary medical care, persons with botulism have a considerably reduced probability of dying than they did in the past, when roughly 50 out of every 100 people perished. Botulism now kills less than 5 individuals out of every 100.

Some patients with botulism die from respiratory failure despite receiving antitoxin and extensive medical and nursing care. Others succumb to infections or other complications as a result of being immobilized for weeks or months.

Patients who survive botulism may experience tiredness and shortness of breath for years later, necessitating long-term treatment.

Dr. Gajanan Jadhao

I am a Hair Transplant Surgeon, Cosmetologist and Anesthesiologist in Pune. I have more than 16 years of experience in this field.